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Heart of the Matter

by Brian T. Lynch, MSW

I knew a boy once who had a long red mark on his neck that someone thought was from physical abuse by his father. I talked to the boy. When I asked how he got the mark on his neck, he fell silent. Then he motioned for me to follow him.

He brought me outside to a shed in the back yard and opened the door. He pointed to a piece of rope on the floor and said,”I tried to hang myself, but the rope broke,” I put my hand on his shoulder as we both just stared at the rope.

I went back to the house to speak with his dad, The man clearly loved his son. He said he just wanted his boy to grow up “the right way.” He admitted he yelled a lot, but said he would never touch is son because of the way his own dad had beaten as a child.

I asked the father to show me his scars from those beatings. He pointed to his heart and said, “They are all here inside me.”

“That,” I said, “is where your son’s scars are as well.” Then I told him how his son got the mark on his neck. The man called his son into the room, grabbed him in a hug and wept. The scars that harm us most are almost always the ones no one else can see.

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Snippets: Toxic Stress and New Ways to Combat the Impact of Child Abuse and Neglect

What follows is a snip-it of an excellent article from the Opinionator section of the New York Times by David Bornstein. Within the article are hyperlinks to excellent source material on childhood toxic stress, its impact on children and new methods to prevent harm or treat children who are exposed to toxic stress. I have taken snippets of each of these hyperlinks to create an annotated index to the sources from Mr. Bornstein’s article. I hope that this will encourage further reading and understanding on this topic. Having spend 31 years as a social worker in child protective services it has been my experience that chronic and repetitive stress on children is both pervasive and incredibly damaging. It takes new protective service workers years of experience to recognize toxic stress and fully appreciate how damaging it truly is. The whole field of protective services is more oriented towards responding to physical abuse and acute safety risks than it is to chronic neglect or repetitive lower level trauma. – Brian T. Lynch, MSW

Protecting Children From Toxic Stress

By DAVID BORNSTEIN

New York Times – October 30, 2013

Imagine if scientists discovered a toxic substance that increased the risks of cancer, diabetes and heart, lung and liver disease for millions of people. Something that also increased one’s risks for smoking, drug abuse, suicide, teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, domestic violence and depression — and simultaneously reduced the chances of succeeding in school, performing well on a job and maintaining stable relationships? It would be comparable to hazards like lead paint, tobacco smoke and mercury. We would do everything in our power to contain it and keep it far away from children. Right?

Well, there is such a thing, but it’s not a substance. It’s been called “toxic stress.” For more than a decade, researchers have understood that frequent or continual stress on young children who lack adequate protection and support from adults, is strongly associated with increases in the risks of lifelong health and social problems, including all those listed above.

[read more: http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/10/30/protecting-children-from-toxic-stress/?_r=0 ]

Toxic stress response: Occurs when a child experiences strong, frequent, and/or prolonged adversity—such as physical or emotional abuse, chronic neglect, caregiver substance abuse or mental illness, exposure to violence, and/or the accumulated burdens of family economic hardship—without adequate adult support. This kind of prolonged activation of the stress response systems can disrupt the development of brain architecture and other organ systems, and increase the risk for stress-related disease and cognitive impairment, well into the adult years.
When toxic stress response occurs continually, or is triggered by multiple sources, it can have a cumulative toll on an individual’s physical and mental health—for a lifetime. The more adverse experiences in childhood, the greater the likelihood of developmental delays and later health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, substance abuse, and depression. Research also indicates that supportive, responsive relationships with caring adults as early in life as possible can prevent or reverse the damaging effects of toxic stress response.

[read more: http://developingchild.harvard.edu/topics/science_of_early_childhood/toxic_stress_response/ ]

Centers For Disease Control and Prevention

http://www.cdc.gov/ace/index.htm

Survey shows 1 in 5 Iowans have 3 or more adverse childhood experiences

October 14, 2013By Jane Ellen Stevensin 

Iowa’s 2012 ACE survey found that 55 percent of Iowans have at least one adverse childhood experience, while one in five of the state’s residents have an ACE score of 3 or higher.

In the Iowa study, there was more emotional abuse than physical and sexual abuse, while adult substance abuse was higher than other household dysfunctions.

This survey echoed the original CDC ACE Study in that as the number of types of adverse childhood experiences increase, the risk of chronic health problems — such as diabetes, depression, heart disease and cancer — increases. So does violence, becoming a victim of violence, and missing work days.

[read more: http://acestoohigh.com/2013/10/14/survey-shows-1-in-5-iowans-have-3-or-more-adverse-childhood-experiences/ ]

From the American Academy of Pediatrics

Technical Report

The Lifelong Effects of Early Childhood Adversity and Toxic Stress

  1. 1.       Benjamin S. Siegel, MD, 
  2. 2.       Mary I. Dobbins, MD, 
  3. 3.       Marian F. Earls, MD,
  4. 4.       Andrew S. Garner, MD, PhD, 
  5. 5.       Laura McGuinn, MD, 
  6. 6.       John Pascoe, MD, MPH, and 
  7. 7.       David L. Wood, MD

 

ABSTRACT

Advances in fields of inquiry as diverse as neuroscience, molecular biology, genomics, developmental psychology, epidemiology, sociology, and economics are catalyzing an important paradigm shift in our understanding of health and disease across the lifespan. This converging, multidisciplinary science of human development has profound implications for our ability to enhance the life prospects of children and to strengthen the social and economic fabric of society. Drawing on these multiple streams of investigation, this report presents an ecobiodevelopmental framework that illustrates how early experiences and environmental influences can leave a lasting signature on the genetic predispositions that affect emerging brain architecture and long-term health. The report also examines extensive evidence of the disruptive impacts of toxic stress, offering intriguing insights into causal mechanisms that link early adversity to later impairments in learning, behavior, and both physical and mental well-being. The implications of this framework for the practice of medicine, in general, and pediatrics, specifically, are potentially transformational. They suggest that many adult diseases should be viewed as developmental disorders that begin early in life and that persistent health disparities associated with poverty, discrimination, or maltreatment could be reduced by the alleviation of toxic stress in childhood. [snip]

[read more: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/1/e232.full ]

WORKING PAPER #3

Excessive Stress Disrupts the Architecture of the Developing Brain

New research suggests that exceptionally stressful experiences early in life may have long-term consequences for a child’s learning, behavior, and both physical and mental health. Some types of “positive stress” in a child’s life—overcoming the challenges and frustrations of learning a new, difficult task, for instance—can be beneficial. Severe, uncontrollable, chronic adversity—what this report defines as “toxic stress”—on the other hand, can produce detrimental effects on developing brain architecture as well as on the chemical and physiological systems that help an individual adapt to stressful events. This has implications for many policy issues, including family and medical leave, child care quality and availability, mental health services, and family support programs. This report from the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child explains how significant adversity early in life can alter—in a lasting way—a child’s capacity to learn and to adapt to stressful situations, how sensitive and responsive caregiving can buffer the effects of such stress, and how policies could be shaped to minimize the disruptive impacts of toxic stress on young children.

Suggested citation: National Scientific Council on the Developing Child (2005). Excessive Stress Disrupts the Architecture of the Developing Brain: Working Paper No. 3. Retrieved from http://www.developingchild.harvard.edu

Download PDF >>

Strengthening Adult Capacities to Improve Child Outcomes: A New Strategy for Reducing Integenerational Poverty

Jack P. Shonkoff, Harvard University – Posted April 22, 2012

[snip]
It’s clear that high-quality early childhood programs can make a measurable difference for children in poverty, but we must do more. Advances in neuroscience, molecular biology, and the behavioral sciences provide the evidence needed to build on best practices and to forge new ideas that can address the factors that contribute to intergenerational poverty. One promising path is to focus on fostering the skills in adults that allow them to be both better parents and better employees.

Science tells us that children who experience significant adversity without the buffering protection of supportive adults can suffer serious lifelong consequences. Such “toxic stress” in the early years can disrupt developing brain architecture and other maturing biological systems in a way that leads to poor outcomes in learning, behavior, and health. [snip] …[T]he goal is to prevent or mitigate the consequences of toxic stress by buffering young children from abuse or neglect, exposure to violence, parental mental illness or substance abuse, and other serious threats to their well-being.

Success in this area requires adults and communities to provide sufficient protection and supports that will help young children develop strong, adaptive capacities. Since many caregivers with limited education and low income have underdeveloped adaptive skills of their own, interventions that focus on adult capacity-building offer promising opportunities for greater impacts on children.

One area of development that appears to be particularly ripe for innovation is the domain of executive functioning. These skills include the ability to focus and sustain attention, set goals and make plans, follow rules, solve problems, monitor actions, delay gratification, and control impulses.[snip]

[ See more at: http://www.spotlightonpoverty.org/ExclusiveCommentary.aspx?id=7a0f1142-f33b-40b8-82eb-73306f86fb74#sthash.4XsuGXPI.dpuf ]

Stress reactivity and attachment security.

Gunnar MRBrodersen LNachmias MBuss KRigatuso J.

Source

Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA.

Abstract

Seventy-three 18-month-olds were tested in the Ainsworth Strange Situation. These children were a subset of 83 infants tested at 2, 4, 6, and 15 months during their well-baby examinations with inoculations. Salivary cortisol, behavioral distress, and maternal responsiveness measures obtained during these clinic visits were examined in relation to attachment classifications. In addition, parental report measures of the children’s social fearfulness in the 2nd year of life were used to classify the children into high-fearful versus average- to low-fearful groups. In the 2nd year, the combination of high fearfulness and insecure versus secure attachment was associated with higher cortisol responses to both the clinic exam-inoculation situation and the Strange Situation. Thus, attachment security moderates the physiological consequences of fearful, inhibited temperament. Regarding the 2-, 4-, and 6-month data, later attachment security was related to greater maternal responsiveness and lower cortisol baselines. Neither cortisol nor behavioral reactivity to the inoculations predicted later attachment classifications. There was some suggestion, however, that at their 2-month checkup, infants who would later be classified as insecurely attached exhibited larger dissociations between the magnitude of their behavioral and hormonal response to the inoculations. Greater differences between internal (hormonal) and external (crying) responses were also negatively correlated with maternal responsiveness and positively correlated with pretest cortisol levels during these early months of life.

[read more: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8666128 ]

Child FIRST

HIGHLIGHTS
  • Intervention: A home visitation program for low-income families with young children at high risk of emotional, behavioral, or developmental problems, or child maltreatment.
  • Evaluation Methods: A well-conducted randomized controlled trial.
  • Key Findings: At the three-year follow-up, a 33% reduction in families’ involvement with child protective services (CPS) for possible child maltreatment. At the one-year follow-up, 40-70% reductions in serious levels of (i) child conduct and language development problems, and (ii) mothers’ psychological distress.
  • Other: A study limitation is that its sample was geographically concentrated in Bridgeport, Connecticut.  Replication of these findings in a second trial, in another setting, would be desirable to confirm the initial results and establish that they generalize to other settings where the intervention might be implemented.

Download a printable version of this evidence summary (pdf, 4 pages)

Effects of Child FIRST one year after random assignment:

Compared to the control group, children in the Child FIRST group were –

  • 68% less likely to have clinically-concerning language development problems, as measured by a trained assessor (10.5% of Child FIRST children had such problems versus 33.3% of control group children).
  • 42% less likely to have clinically-concerning externalizing behaviors, such as aggression or impulsiveness, as reported by their mothers (17.0% of Child FIRST children versus 29.1% of control group children).

Compared to the control group, mothers in the Child FIRST group were –

  • 64% less likely to have clinically-concerning levels of psychological distress, based on self-reports (14.0% of Child FIRST mothers versus 39.0% of the control group mothers).
  • The study did not find statistically-significant effects on (i) the percent of children with clinically-concerning internalizing behaviors (e.g., depression or anxiety); (ii) the percent of children with clinically-concerning dysregulation (e.g., sleep or eating problems); (iii) the percent of mothers with clinically-concerning parenting stress; or (iv) the percent of mothers with clinically-concerning depression.3

[read more: http://toptierevidence.org/programs-reviewed/child-first ]

Research Finds a High Rate of Expulsions in Preschool

By TAMAR LEWIN

New York Times – Published: May 17, 2005

So what if typical 3-year-olds are just out of diapers, still take a daily nap and can’t tie their shoes? They are plenty old enough to be expelled, the first national study of expulsion rates in prekindergarten programs has found.

In fact, preschool children are three times as likely to be expelled as children in kindergarten through 12th grade, according to the new study, by researchers from the Yale Child Study Center.

[read more: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/17/education/17expel.html?_r=0 ]

Preschool and child care expulsion and suspension: Rates and predictors in one state.

Gilliam, Walter S.; Shahar, Golan

Infants & Young Children, Vol 19(3), Jul-Sep 2006, 228-245. doi: 10.1097/00001163-200607000-00007

ABSTRACT : Rates and predictors of preschool expulsion and suspension were examined in a randomly selected sample of Massachusetts preschool teachers (N = 119). During a 12-month period, 39% of teachers reported expelling at least one child, and 15% reported suspending. The preschool expulsion rate was 27.42 per 1000 enrollees, more than 34 times the Massachusetts K-12 rate and more than 13 times the national K-12 rate. Suspension rates for preschoolers were less than that for K-12. Larger classes, higher proportion of 3-year-olds in the class, and elevated teacher job stress predicted increased likelihood of expulsion.  [snip]

[read more: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2009-04570-007 ]

Traumatic and stressful events in early childhood: Can treatment help those at highest risk?

Chandra Ghosh Ippen, William W. Harris, Patricia Van HornAlicia F. Lieberman

ABSTRACT: This study involves a reanalysis of data from a randomized controlled trial to examine whether child–parent psychotherapy (CPP), an empirically based treatment focusing on the parent–child relationship as the vehicle for child improvement, is efficacious for children who experienced multiple traumatic and stressful life events (TSEs)

[read more: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0145213411001499 ]

Listening to a Baby’s Brain: Changing the Pediatric Checkup to Reduce Toxic Stress

Listening to a baby’s heartbeat. Examining a toddler’s ears. Testing a preschooler for exposure to lead. These critical screenings have long been the hallmarks of early childhood checkups. Now, leading pediatricians are recommending major changes to the checkups of the future. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) wants primary care doctors to screen their youngest patients for social and emotional difficulties that could be early signs of toxic stress. Read more >>

[read more: http://developingchild.harvard.edu/resources/stories_from_the_field/tackling_toxic_stress/ ]

From the American Academy of Pediatrics

Policy Statement

Early Childhood Adversity, Toxic Stress, and the Role of the Pediatrician: Translating Developmental Science Into Lifelong Health

Andrew S. Garner, MD, PhD, Jack P. Shonkoff, MD, Benjamin S. Siegel, MD, Mary I. Dobbins, MD, Marian F. Earls, MD, Andrew S. Garner, MD, PhD, Laura McGuinn, MD, John Pascoe, MD, MPH, David L. Wood, MD

ABSTRACT : [snip] To this end, AAP endorses a developing leadership role for the entire pediatric community—one that mobilizes the scientific expertise of both basic and clinical researchers, the family-centered care of the pediatric medical home, and the public influence of AAP and its state chapters—to catalyze fundamental change in early childhood policy and services. AAP is committed to leveraging science to inform the development of innovative strategies to reduce the precipitants of toxic stress in young children and to mitigate their negative effects on the course of development and health across the life span.

[read more: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/1/e224.full.html ]

Top of Form

aces connection

HEALTHY, HAPPY KIDS GROW UP TO CREATE A HEALTHY, HAPPY WORLD.

This is a community of practice network. We use trauma-informed practices to prevent ACEs & further trauma, and to increase resilience.

[read more: http://acesconnection.com/ ]

ABOUT DAVID BORNSTEIN:

David Bornstein is the author of “How to Change the World,” which has been published in 20 languages, and “The Price of a Dream: The Story of the Grameen Bank,” and is co-author of “Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to Know.” He is a co-founder of theSolutions Journalism Network, which supports rigorous reporting about responses to social problems.

Map Pinpoints Where Children Are Being Sexually Abused. Why Aren’t We INVESTIGATING?

The trial and conviction of former Penn State football coach, Jerry Sandusky,  for child sexual abuse allowed many people to hear  for the first time the graph details that makes these crimes so repulsive.   Civil hearings on child sexual abuse cases usually take place in closed courtrooms for the protection of these young victims.  In this case, however, the victims are now adults, the trial was public and very high profile.  People paid attention and learned just how violent these child rapes are.   This made it  easy to see just how destructive these betrayals of a child’s trust are and why it scars children for life.

This may be a good point to consider the scope of the child sexual abuse problem.   Perhaps the information presented below will have greater resonance than when first posted a number of months ago.  Each red dot on the map below is a Sandusky type horror story for some innocent child in America.   So what are we going to do about it???

The map below shows the locations of hundreds of thousands of criminals trafficking in child abuse images… and the locations of many of their U.S. child victims. Produced by the Wyoming Attorney General’s Office, and based on investigations by Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) law enforcement task forces, it was introduced as evidence in U.S. House and Senate hearings in 2007-2008. The red dots represent unique computers seen by the ICACs trafficking in video and photos of very young children being raped. These images are often called “child pornography,” but they are actually crime scene recordings.

Map

Most of these children wait for a rescue that will never come. They are in extreme danger and law enforcement knows where they are. Investigators go home every night knowing there are thousands of children out there beyond their reach, because they have not been given the resources they need to rescue them.

See The Ed Show Segment on this issue
Watch a Video Plea From Children
Go to Protect for More Detailed Information
Take Action
View my post on Child Fatality Risk Factors (Because child sexual abuse is not the only problem our children face every day)

One Way State Policies Impacts Children’s Lives

Investing in Public Programs Matters: How State Policies Impact Children’s Lives

Read more here:  http://bit.ly/zbNSSY

 This report focuses on the results of the 2012 STATE Child Well-Being Index (CWI) which is a comprehensive state-level index of child well-being modeled after the Foundation for Child Development’s (FCD) NATIONAL CWI.
The key findings from this study are:
Higher State Taxes Are Better for Children. States that have higher tax rates generate higher revenues and have higher CWI values than states with lower tax rates.
Public Investments in Children Matter.
The amount of public investments in programs is strongly related to CWI values among states. Specifically, higher per-pupil spending on education, higher Medicaid child-eligibility thresholds, and higher levels of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) benefits show a substantial correlation with child well-being across states.
A Child’s Well-Being Is Strongly Related to the State Where He or She Lives. Child well-being varies tremendously from state to state, ranging from a 0.85 index value for New Jersey, the highest ranked state, to a negative 0.96 index value for New Mexico, the lowest-ranked state. The six states that had the highest CWI values were New Jersey, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Utah, Connecticut, and Minnesota. On the other end of the spectrum, Arizona, Nevada, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and New Mexico were found to have the lowest index values.

The STATE CWI draws from the most comprehensive set of data used to form a state index of child well-being. With these data, the STATE CWI ranks children’s well-being in seven different domains for each state and compares them across states. In addition to state rankings, this report includes new findings about the strength of relationships between state policies and selected economic and demographic factors indicative of child well-being.
Read more:

http://bit.ly/yNZiui  – Analyzing State Differences in Child Well-Being
William O’Hare
The Annie E. Casey Foundation
Mark Mather and Genevieve Dupuis
Population Reference Bureau
January 2012
and
http://bit.ly/zbNSSY  –  Investing in Public Programs Matters:

                                      How State Policies Impact Children’s Lives
                                      2012 STATE Child and Youth Well-Being Index (CWI)
                                       Based

Child Well-Being Index (CWI)

The FCD Child Well-Being Index (CWI) is a national, research-based composite measure updated annually that describes how young people in the United States have fared since 1975. The NATIONAL CWI, released publicly for the first time in 2004, is the nation’s most comprehensive measure of trends in the quality of life of children and youth. It combines national data from 28 indicators across seven domains into a single number that reflects overall child well-being. The seven quality-of-life domains are Family Economic Well-Being, Health, Safe/Risky Behavior, Educational Attainment, Community Engagement, Social Relationships, and Emotional/Spiritual Well-Being.

CHILD MALTREATMENT FATALITY RISK FACTORS

Child Fatality Risk Factors Report

 

The rate at which children are dying at the hands of family members in this country is shameful and so unbelievable sad. The BBC just did a special about it here: BBC Special Report [http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-15288865].

 

So I thought I would share a guide I developed.   This isn’t a pleasant topic, I know, but it is an important one.

 

Below are some risk factors associated with higher rates of child deaths from abuse or neglect.  These were drawn from a survey of literature regarding child maltreatment fatalities.    The link above is to the report itself, which you should read.  The points below summarizes some of the information the report contains.  All credit goes to the Academy for Professional Excellence who put out the report. Who knows, blogging this might raise someone’s red flag some day and lead to a timely report for a child at risk, or encourage a struggling parent to ask for help.

 

If any parents out there are worried about themselves and their children,  and see these attributes as fitting their own circumstances, please seek the support and assistance you need right away. There are a lot of good folks and organizations who are ready to help. See the list of resources below.

 

(Note to others: Please don’t report a family based only on the fact they have some of these attributes.  That would be wrong and maybe even harmful.  Reports, generally speaking, should be bases on a reasonable suspicion that a caregiver’s actions or inactions have, or could have significantly harmed a child.)

 

RISK FACTORS:

 

Child Attributes:

–         There is a new born infant in the home

–          A child is under three-years-old (children 3 and under account for over 75% of all fatalities.)

–         A child has medical, behavioral, or developmental problems

–         A child is ill or handicapped

–         A child was born premature

–         An infant has colic

–         A child is hostile, aggressive or excessively fussy

–         A child has disturbed or unusual behaviors

–         A child has a recent history of vomiting, reoccurring medical concerns or multiple hospitalizations

 

Family Attributes:

–         There are two or more children under 3 years old

–         Family lacks suitable child care availability

–         Family is financially poor

–         Children have different biological fathers

–         Unrelated adults are living in the home

–         Family has a history of severe or repeated instances of maltreatment

–         There are multiple father figures in and out of the home

–         The family has frequent moves

 

Caregiver Attributes:

–         Lives near or below the poverty line

–         Has a low education level (no high school diploma0

–         Has poor stress coping abilities

–         Has a history of abuse as a child

–         Has had his/her parental rights terminated in the past

–         Is a victim or perpetrator of domestic violence

–         Has a history of violence or criminality

–         Has a problem with substance abuse

–          Has a deficit of skills related to parenting (including ineffective or inconsistent discipline)

–         Has unrealistic expectations about children’s behavior and capabilities

–         Lacks emotional attachment to the child

–         Has mental health problems (e.g. depression)

–         Is socially isolated, without a healthy support system

–         Is a teenage mother, particularly for the second or subsequent child

–         Is a mother who never pursued prenatal care

 

http://theacademy.sdsu.edu/programs/SACHS/literature/SACHS-Child%20Fatalities%20Literature%20Review-Feb%202010.pdf

 

IN NEW JERSEY:  http://www.state.nj.us/dcf/index.shtml

 

 

NATIONAL RESOURCES:

 

Childhelp USA®
National Child Abuse Hotline
1-800-4-A-CHILD
24 Hours a Day

Child Abuse National Hotline
1-800-252-2873, 1-800-25ABUSE

National Youth Crisis Hotline
National Youth Development
1-800-HIT-HOME (1-800-448-4663)

National Runaway Switchboard
This hot-line is a referral service for youths in personal crisis.
1-800-621-4000

State-by-State Listings:

State Organization Phone
Alabama Dept. of Human Resources 334 242-9500
Alaska 24-hr hotline: 800 478-4444
Arizona Phoenix hotline: 800 541-5781
Arkansas Dept. of Human Services 800 482-5964
California Dept. of Social Services Office of Child Protective Services 916 445-2771
Colorado DenverCounty: 24 hr. hotline 303 727-3000
Connecticut Reporting 24 hrs: 800 842-2599
Delaware Reporting 24 hrs in-state: 800 292-9582
District of Columbia Report child abuse

Report child neglect

202 576-6762

202 727-0995

Florida Abuse Registry 800 962-2873
Georgia Dept. of Human Resources Child Protective and Placement Services Unit: 404 657-3408
Hawaii Dept. of Human Services 24hr hotline: 808 832-5300
Idaho For information and referral to regional office: 208 334-0808
Illinois In-State Parents under stress and Reporting 24 hrs: 800 252-2873
Indiana Reporting: 800 562-2407
Iowa In-state hotline: 800 362-2178
Kansas Reporting 24 hr hotline: 800 922-5330
Kentucky Local Dept. for Social Services or statewide hotline: 800 752-6200
Louisiana 24 hr hotline: 504 925-4571
Maine Reporting 24 hrs: 800 452-1999
Maryland County office of Dept. of Human Resources: Child Protective Services. Click here for Phone Listings
Massachusetts 24 hr hotline: 800 792-5200
Michigan 24 hr. hotline: 800 942-4357
Minnesota County office of Dept. of Social Services. Click here for Phone Listings
Mississippi 24 hr hotline: 800 222-8000
Missouri Reporting: 800 392-3738
Montana 24 hr. hotline: 800 332-6100
Nebraska Reporting 24 hrs: 800 471-5128
Nevada 24 hr. hotline: 800 992-5757
New York Reporting 24 hrs: 800 342-3720
New Mexico 24 hr. hotline: 800 432-2075
New Jersey 24 hr. hotline: 877 652-2873
New Hampshire In-state hotline: 800 894-5533
North Dakota Reporting: CountySocial Services or: 701 328-4806
North Carolina 24 hr. hotline: 800 662-7030
Ohio Dept. of Human Services Child Protective 614 466-0995
Oklahoma 24 hr. hotline: 800 522-3511
Oregon Dept. of Human Resources Childrens’ Services Division 503 945-5651
Pennsylvania 24 hr. hotline in-state: 800 932-0313
Puerto Rico 24 hr. hotline: 800 981-8333
Rhode Island 24 hr. hotline: 800 742-4453
South Carolina Dept. of Social Services Division of Child Protective and Preventive Services 803 734-5670
South Dakota Child Protective Services 605 773-3227
Tennessee Dept. of Human Services Child Protective Services 615 313-4746
Texas 24 hr. hotline: 800 252-5400
Utah 24 hr. hotline: 800 678-9399
Vermont Dept. of Social and Rehabilitation Services 802 241-2131
Virginia 24 hr. in state hotline: 800 552-7096
Washington 24 hr. hotline: 800 562-5624
West Virginia 24 hr. hotline: 800 352-6513
Wisconsin Dept. of Health and Social Services 608 266-3036
Wyoming In-State Reporting: 307 777-7922

 

 

Child Abuse: Just One Story

Child Abuse Introduction   |   Signs of Child Abuse

Child Abuse Statistics   |   It’s Under Reported

Effects of Child Abuse on Children: Abuse General

Effects of Child Abuse on Children: Child Sexual Abuse

Injuries to Children: Physical and Sexual Abuse

Effects of Child Abuse on Adults: Childhood Abuse

Effects of Child Abuse on Adults: Childhood Sexual Abuse

Definition of Physical Abuse   |   Signs of Physical Abuse

Definition of Sexual Abuse   |   Signs of Sexual Abuse

Definition of Child Neglect   |   Signs of Child Neglect

Definition of Emotional Abuse   |   Signs of Emotional Abuse

Abusers   |   Pedophiles

Child Physical Abuse and Corporal Punishment

Treatment for Child Abuse

Costs to Society

Conclusions

References

State Child Abuse Laws

Nationwide Crisis Line and Hotline Directory

National Non-Governmental Organizations and Links

U.S. Government Organizations and Links